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Table 1 Comparisons of smart learning, context-aware u-learning systems and adaptive learning

From: Definition, framework and research issues of smart learning environments - a context-aware ubiquitous learning perspective

  Smart learning Context-aware u-learning Adaptive learning
Detects and takes into account the real-world contexts Yes Yes No
Situates learners in real-world scenarios Yes Yes No
Adapts learning content for individual learners Yes No Yes
Adapts the learning interface for individual learners Yes No Yes
Adapts learning tasks or objectives for individual learners Yes No No
Provides personalized feedback or guidance Yes Yes Yes
Provides learning guidance or support across disciplines Yes No No
Provides learning guidance or support across contexts (e.g., in classrooms, on school campuses, in the library, and on the street) Yes Yes No
Recommends learning tools or strategies Yes No No
Considers the online learning status of learners Yes No Yes
Considers the real-world learning status of learners Yes Yes No
Facilitates both formal and informal learning Yes Yes No
Takes multiple personal factors and environmental factors (e.g., learning needs, preferences, schedules and real-world contexts) into account Yes No No
Interacts with users via multiple channels (e.g., smartphones, Google Glass, or other ubiquitous computing devices) Yes Yes No
Provides support to learners with “in advance adaptation” across real and virtual contexts Yes No No
Provides support to learners with “on the run adaptation” across real and virtual contexts Yes No No