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Table 1 Hofstede’s four main dimensions on which country cultures differ

From: Working with multicultural virtual teams: critical factors for facilitation, satisfaction and success

Dimension Definition
Power distance (how people respond to power and authority) In high-power-distance cultures people have greater respect for authority - bosses, managers or teachers tend to be more paternalistic or autocratic. In low-power-distance cultures, subordinates are more likely to challenge bosses, managers or teachers.
Uncertainty avoidance (people’s reaction to unknown situations) Some cultures are low in uncertainty avoidance, i.e., they like to take risks, take individual initiative, and enjoy conflict. Whereas some cultures are high in uncertainty avoidance, i.e., do not like conflict, but pursue group harmony; people within these organizations need clear rules, procedures, and clearly defined job responsibilities.
Individualism-Collectivism (function primarily as a group member or as an individual) In an individualistic culture, people are expected to look out for themselves. In a collectivistic culture individuals develop strong personal and protective ties. They provide loyalty to the group without questioning.
Masculinity-Feminity Some cultures are rated high on masculine dimensions (males are expected to be “in-charge”). In contrast, some others have a stronger feminine dimension, which means that roles are more fluid between males and females.