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Table 2 Summarizes the teachers’ roles in SL environment observed in the schools visited during data collection

From: Transforming learning for the smart learning paradigm: lessons learned from the Palestinian initiative





Traditional Teachers

Teachers who believes that technology does not have any impact on teachers and it converts the curriculum from text into visualization mode.

Innovative Teachers

Instructional Roles

Facilitator (Advisor)

Give assistance and advice for students to finish their projects. Promote interactions among students, encourage participation, and facilitate discourses

Instructional Designer

Use available resources to enrich the lesson activities/design activities individually/design team


Collaborate with colleagues to design activities or share ideas with them

Team Teaching

Teachers together set goals for a unit from curriculum to teach it with technology, prepare individual lesson plans, teach students, and evaluate the results.

Technological roles


Support learners to use technologies/Modeling the use of technology to complete the project/provide support to students

Social Roles


Support social interaction and


Creating friendly and comfortable social environment

Organizational roles

Team coordinator

Negotiating an agenda for learning activities; timetabling learning activities and tasks; clarifying procedural rules and decision-making norms.