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Table 1 Affinity diagram composition before interacting with ProTuS

From: Learning in smart environments: user-centered design and analytics of an adaptive learning system

Category/subcategory Affordances Content Assessment
Interface 1) Intuitive; 2) User friendly; 3) Easy to use/navigate; 4) Mobility - use the system on the go; 5) Use the system with different platforms; 6) Live chat with TAs, teachers, and classmates. 1) Interactive tutorials; 2) Interactive videos; 3) Interactive books. Invite other students to compare test results and discuss it together to learn from it.
Gamification The system should be fun to use. 1) System should induce collaboration among the students. 2) Content that will motivate students to use the system. 1) Students should be able to invite other students to compete in quizzes and other assessment methods. 2) Students should be able to create groups that could earn badges, rewards. and compete with others in the group.
Examination 1) The system should help students to prepare for final exam by creating exams based on the results from previous tests they already had during the semester. 2) Investing time to use the system should help students to get better final grades. 1) Choose specific parts of curriculum that will contain questions from previous exams on which student has failed or under performed. 2) Filter and sort content based on test results. 3) Mix content/quizzes. 1) End of semester test with all failed questions during the semester. 2) Choose and assess other students work to reinforce its own knowledge and help classmates. 3) Ask for peer reviews on tasks/assignments.