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Table 1 List of AUs involved in engagement detection using facial expressions in online learning

From: Engagement detection in online learning: a review

Engagement Levels Action Units Methods
Boredom AU4, AU7, AU12 McDaniel et al. (2007)
Confusion AU1, AU4, AU7, AU12
Delight AU4, AU7, AU12, AU25, AU26
Frustration AU12
Neutral AU4, AU7, AU12, AU25, AU26
Difficulties in viewing speed AU1, AU2, AU4, AU5, AU9, AU10, AU12, AU14, AU15, AU17, AU20, AU45 Whitehill et al. (2008, 2014)
Confusion AU4, AU7 Grafsgaard et al. (2013a, 2013b)
Frustration AU1, AU2, AU4
Learning Gain AU2, AU14
Confusion AU45, AU1, AU4 Bosch (2016); Bosch et al. (2014, 2015, 2016)
Frustration AU45, head pose feature
Learning Gain AU2, AU4, AU5, AU12, AU15, AU23 Vail et al. (2016a); Vail et al. (2016b)