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Table 1 Motivation: Perspectives and implications (adapted from (Flores 2015))

From: Evaluation of awarding badges on Student’s engagement in Gamified e-learning systems

PerspectiveImplications
TraitAchievement, power, and affiliation motives are driven respectively by success and progress, competition and control, and collaboration in gamification. (Dornyei and Ottó 1998)
Behavioristic learningIncorporating real-time or faster, frequent feedback and rewards in gamification motivate learners. (Dale 2014)
CognitiveLearners are motivated to achieve clearly stated and achievable outcomes, and to master processes oriented towards defined goals. (Pina et al. 2009)
Self-determinationProviding for competence, autonomy, and social acceptance in gamification can encourage learners to engage better. (Seaborn and Fels 2015)
InterestCreating contextual interest through gamification and following up with timely, relevant feedback and a clear vision about the achievable goal can motivate and engage players sustainably. (Zichermann and Cunningham 2011)
EmotionGamification can be more successful in motivating players by putting more accent on positive (pleasure, sympathy, connectedness, competition) feelings, while holding back on negatives (envy, anger, desperation, helplessness) (Kuh 2009)