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Table 2 The four categories of guidelines in previous models

From: Flipped learning wheel (FLW): a framework and process design for flipped L2 writing classes

Addressed by the flipped learning approachActionable guidelinesPrinciplesOthers
 - Demonstration: provide first exposure prior to F2F sessions
 - Curriculum coherency
 - Application of the knowledge
- Assessment of understanding
- Activation: build the out-of-class and in-class connection
- Feedback
- Guidance
- Support
- Reflection
- Collaboration
- Learning community
- Engagement: provide incentives to actively involve learners
- Relatedness: provide real-word problems that integrate to the learners’ word.
- Intensive training
- Familiarity with technologies
- Sufficient time