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Table 3 Pearson’s correlation coefficient: Time Range of Exposure (Online learning)

From: Smart multimedia learning of ICT: role and impact on language learners’ writing fluency— YouTube online English learning resources as an example

Time Range of Exposure Mono-medium (text / speech) Multimedia (text & speech)
Reading (books) Listening (songs) YouTube BBC 6-Minute English Video games Songs Films Audio books
Writing rate −0.096 0.299 0.514 −0.390 0.149 −0.145 0.018
No. of error-free T.units per text 0.089 0.014 0.783 −0.317 0.048 −0.393 0.394
Lexical diversity (VOCD) −0.002 0.375 0.734 −0.100 0.127 0.131 0.332
Lexical density 0.081 −0.226 0.426 0.699 0.113 0.395 0.125
Mean length of T.unit −0.310 0.367 0.494 −0.333 0.247 −0.225 −0.300
Number of clauses per T-unit −0.111 0.198 0.767 −0.279 0.126 −0.037 −0.114
Organization of ideas 0.213 0.215 0.761 −0.104 0.010 0.010 0.211