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Table 4 Pearson’s correlation coefficient: Engagement Rate (Offline learning)

From: Smart multimedia learning of ICT: role and impact on language learners’ writing fluency— YouTube online English learning resources as an example

Engagement Rate Mono-medium (text / speech) Multimedia (text & speech)
Reading (books) Listening (songs) Video games Formal schooling Films Audio books
Writing rate −0.011 0.291 −0.436 0.223 0.171 0.329
No. of error-free T.units per text −0.178 −0.094 − 0.334 −0.049 0.219 −0.013
Lexical diversity (VOCD) 0.110 −0.144 −0.150 0.137 0.086 0.022
Lexical density 0.008 −0.282 0.763 0.182 −0.373 −0.331
Mean length of T.unit 0.342 0.003 −0.317 0.382 0.217 0.249
Number of clauses per T-unit 0.009 −0.190 − 0.244 0.134 −0.078 − 0.006
Organization of ideas −0.337 − 0.217 − 0.053 0.337 0.018 −0.125