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Table 5 Pearson’s correlation coefficient: Time Range of Exposure (Offline learning)

From: Smart multimedia learning of ICT: role and impact on language learners’ writing fluency— YouTube online English learning resources as an example

Time Range of Exposure Mono-medium (text / speech) Multimedia (text & speech)
Reading (books) Listening (songs) Video games Formal schooling Films Audio books
Writing rate 0.501 0.112 −0.299 0.108 0.037 −0.156
No. of error-free T.units per text 0.713 −0.242 −0.338 0.197 0.230 −0.112
Lexical diversity (VOCD) 0.526 −0.217 −0.466 0.199 0.298 −0.222
Lexical density −0.485 −0.193 0.422 0.290 0.232 0.210
Mean length of T.unit 0.774 −0.138 0.029 −0.029 −0.222 − 0.418
Number of clauses per T-unit 0.842 −0.155 −0.174 0.050 −0.218 − 0.249
Organization of ideas 0.381 −0.077 −0.080 0.306 0.104 −0.085