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Table 2 SLE models or frameworks (chronologically ordered)

From: Smart learning environments: a basic research towards the definition of a practical model

Reference Model dimensions
Hwang (2014) - Learning status detecting module.
- Learning performance evaluation module.
- Adaptive learning task module.
- Adaptive learning content module.
- Personal learning support module.
- Set of databases for keeping the learner profiles, learning materials, etc.
- Inference engine and a knowledge base for determining the “value” of the candidate learning tasks, strategies and tools.
Zhu, Sun, and Riezebos (2016) - Teaching presence (instructional design, facilitation and direct instruction and technological support).
- Technological presence (connective, ubiquitous access and personalized).
- Learner presence (autonomous learner, collaborative learner and efficient technology user).
Zhu, Yu, and Riezebos (2016) - Smart environments.
- Smart pedagogy (contemplates the inclusive educational view).
- Smart learners.
It contemplates a 4-level architecture of intelligent pedagogies.
Laxmikant (2017) - Connectivity (IoT).
- Business model.
- Killer applications (applications for data management).
Liu, Huang, and Wosinski (2017) - Learning experience (any place, way, time and pace).
- Supporting technologies (advice and supportive technology).
- Core elements of learning scenarios (learning tasks, learning methods, learning goals, learning space, learning community, etc.)
- Logical laws for teaching and learning.
Freigang, Schlenker, and Köhler (2018) - Participatory corporate culture.
- User centricity.
- Didactical variety.
- Hybrid learning space.
- Hybrid learning assistance.
Maulidiya, Santoso, and Hasibuan (2019) - Smart Learning (learning activities, learning path, learning contents, learning portfolio, learner behavior model).
- Smart pedagogy (presentation, assessment, intervention, feedback, teaching management).
- Smart supporting system (smart room, e-learning system and multichannel communication).
Yusufu and Nathan (2020) - Smart pedagogies based on learning theory.
- Smart learning environment (physical and virtual classrooms).
- Smart technologies.
- Smart learners (students, teachers or learning communities).