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Table 3 Enabling information technologies for smart education

From: Smart education framework

Information technology Definition
Learning management systems Learning management systems are software applications or systems designed to create, communicate, manage, and deliver education and training programs
Smart classrooms Smart classrooms are physical educational environments supported with information and communication technologies. Smart classrooms may utilize ambient intelligence technology
Virtual classrooms Virtual classrooms are educational environments in which educators and learners meet virtually
Cloud computing technology National Institute of Standards and Technology defines Cloud computing as on-demand access to a shared pool of computing resources. The technology enabling services on the cloud is called cloud computing technology
Extended reality (XR) Extended reality is the term referring to all real and virtual combined (immersive) environments in the spectrum including augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR)
Virtual environments A virtual environment is a computer-generated environment to replace the real environment with a virtual one
Augmented reality Augmented reality is the technology dealing with enhancing the user’s sense of the physical world with computer-generated sensory data in real-time
Web 2.0+ Web 2.0+ are technologies after Web 1.0. After Web 1.0, web technologies offer interactive, semantic, and intelligent web services
Social networks Social networking sites may be defined as the online platforms enabling social interactions between users having profiles
Educational resources Any type of learning and teaching material including educational presentations, e-books, interactive books, academic and corporate video tubes, etc. If these resources are open to the public then they are called open educational resources otherwise they are private to specific institutions
Academic and corporate tubes Academic or corporate tubes are online video-sharing platforms for education and training purposes
E-books and interactive books E-books and interactive books are digital books enhanced with user interaction ability
Mobile technology Mobile technology is the information and communication technology enabling portable mobile devices
Serious games Serious games are computer games used for instructional purposes
Learning and academic analytics Learning analytics is about the collection, measurement, and analysis of data about learning activities. Academic analytics utilizes business intelligence tools and strategies to guide educational decision-making
Educational data mining Educational data mining is to analyze data obtained from educational environments to understand patterns of learner behavior and to improve educational settings
Educational robots Educational robots are robots used for educational and training purposes
Gesture-based computing Gesture-based computing is the technology aimed at understanding human gestures
Ambient intelligence Ambient intelligence is an emerging paradigm that brings intelligence into our lives with the help of intelligent interfaces and smart environments