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Table.2 Mean, standard deviation and one sample t-test results of variables

From: Beyond policy narratives: exploring the role of pedagogical beliefs in classroom practices of secondary school Civics and Ethical Education teachers

  M SD df t p
Traditional belief 3.12 .76 323 2.94 .004
Constructivist belief 3.91 .59 323 27.86 .000
Overall constructivist practice 2.91 .61 323 -2.59 .010
Critical Voice 2.82 .86 323 -3.80 .000
Uncertainty 2.86 .82 323 -3.13 .002
Personal Relevance 2.86 .91 323 -2.81 .005
Shared control 3.07 .85 323 1.51 .132
Student Negotiation 2.96 .86 323 -.92 .358
  1. M = Mean, SD = Standard deviation, df = degree of freedom