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Table 9 Potential obstacles that may hinder academics from using telepresence robots

From: University academics’ perceptions regarding the future use of telepresence robots to enhance virtual transnational education: an exploratory investigation in a developing country

Potential obstacles % Academics identified as
Minor obstacle Moderate obstacle Severe obstacle Very severe obstacle
PO1 Using telepresence robots would not be in line with the way I realize the principles of teaching and learning practices 1 (2.2%) 39 (84.8%) 3 (6.5%) 3 (6.5%)
PO2 The difficulty of knowing how to implement the telepresence robot system architecture 19 (41.3%) 21 (45.7%) 3 (6.5%) 3 (6.5%)
PO3 There are not enough number of telepresence robots available in university 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO4 Generally, academics do not have access to the related software 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO5 Usually, there are not enough computers for programing the telepresence robots 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO6 Using telepresence robots require more effort and time for classroom management 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO7 using telepresence robots will increase the amount of stress for academics because some international students may know more about telepresence robotics than some academics do 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO8 Academics do not feel confident enough to use telepresence robots in their educational activities 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO9 Lack of sufficient administrative support 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO10 lack of appropriate technological support 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO11 Lack of reference cases 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)
PO12 The difficulty of the integration of telepresence robots in a classroom environment 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 46 (100%)