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Table 1 Bivariate correlation coefficients (Kendall’s \(\tau\)) and significance between each data log and flow experience dimensions

From: Predicting students’ flow experience through behavior data in gamified educational systems

  CSB MMA G F C CTRL LSC T A
ActTS − .407* − .315 − .452** − .269 .266 − .117 − .234 − .133 − .214
UsdTFS − .290 − .169 − .468** − .286 .277 − .034 − .273 − .119 − .200
ProWS − .251 − .310 − .405* − .142 .081 − .109 − .298 − .173 − .222
RF − .242 − .315 − .458** − .187 .086 − .153 − .304 − .159 − .243
ArtAF − .106 − .237 − .222 − .204 .357 .089 − .397* − .173 − .256
TotUSV − .104 − .238 − .504** − .219 .380* .065 − .158 .069 − .039
NumCOB − .075 − .320* − .324 − .112 .293 .054 − .186 − .019 − .080
  1. Red color indicates a negative correlation, and green color indicates positive correlation. The intensity of the color indicates the level of correlation; ActTS active time in the system, UsdTFS used the time to finish a step/mission, ProWS proportion of wrong steps/responses, RF received feedback, ArtAF average students’ response time after a feedback, TotUSV total unique session views, NumCOB number of mouse clicks, CSB challenge-skill balance, MMA action-awareness merging, G clear goals, F unambiguous feedback, C total concentration on the task at hand, CTRL sense of control, LSC loss of self-consciousness, T transformation of time, and A autotelic experience
  2. \(*p<0.05; **p<0.01\)