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Table 5 Relationships between data logs and flow experience dimensions

From: Predicting students’ flow experience through behavior data in gamified educational systems

  B p values CI
2.5% 97.5%
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) A 0.113 0.829 − 0.725 1.434
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) C − 0.175 0.661 − 0.851 0.591
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) CSB 0.275 0.268 − 0.239 0.796
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) CTRL − 0.061 0.880 − 0.517 1.065
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) F − 0.145 0.624 − 0.537 0.622
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) G − 0.414* 0.074 − 0.893 0.025
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) LSC − 0.672* 0.094 − 0.988 0.342
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) MMA 0.025 0.924 − 0.356 0.644
Frequency \(\rightarrow\) T − 0.006 0.983 − 0.455 0.858
Speed \(\rightarrow\) A 0.069 0.897 − 1.481 0.603
Speed \(\rightarrow\) C 0.263 0.333 − 0.350 0.763
Speed \(\rightarrow\) CSB − 0.815** 0.004 − 1.046 0.192
Speed \(\rightarrow\) CTRL 0.098 0.843 − 1.166 0.612
Speed \(\rightarrow\) F − 0.415 0.115 − 0.888 0.269
Speed \(\rightarrow\) G − 0.223 0.353 − 0.923 0.271
Speed \(\rightarrow\) LSC − 0.075 0.740 − 0.538 0.331
Speed \(\rightarrow\) MMA − 0.419 0.134 − 0.750 0.474
Speed \(\rightarrow\) T 0.021 0.949 − 0.905 0.479
Speed \(\rightarrow\) activities 0.441** 0.010 0.243 0.754
  1. \(\beta\) regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, CSB challenge-skill balance, MMA action-awareness merging, G clear goals, F unambiguous feedback, C total concentration on the task at hand, CTRL sense of control, LSC loss of self-consciousness, T transformation of time, and A autotelic experience, Frequency frequency of students’ action, Speed speed of students’ action
  2. *\(p<0.1\), **\(p<0.05\)