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Table 1 Classroom practices that support self-regulated learning

From: Self-regulated learning, self-determination theory and teacher candidates’ development of competency-based teaching practices

Practices Description
Choice Students are involved in choices that involve higher level decision making (e.g., topics to research, what resources to use; how to organize information; roles for collaborative group members; time management; working conditions, partners)
Control over challenge Students are given opportunities to negotiate with their teacher or independently make modifications/adaptations to learning tasks based on their learning needs and interests (e.g., students work at their own pace; decide on the length of writing assignments; determine presentation formats)
Self-assessment Students self-evaluate their work. They are aware of criteria for tasks and have opportunities to assess their on-going progress (e.g., to consider their work in relation to task criteria and their own learning goals)
Teacher support Teachers provide students with support that is instrumental to their self-regulated learning. They guide students toward independence by supporting their development of skills to solve problems for themselves (e.g., rather than telling a student how to complete a task, the teacher promotes metacognitive thought through questioning [e.g., “Can you think …”; “What strategies could you use…”]). Teachers support student motivation by using motivational language that emphasizes the role of effort, effective strategy use, and personal growth over external indicators of performance (e.g., grades)
Support from peers Similar to teacher support, peers provide instrumental support, they offer growth oriented motivational messages (as described above). Additionally, discussions with peers about learning, supports students’ awareness and understanding of learning and their needs/strengths as learners
Embedded assessment Teachers provide students with feedback (verbal, visual or written). Teachers keep records regarding student progress and continually reflect on how students are responding to tasks and teaching strategies
Complex tasks Teachers engage students in complex tasks. Often, these tasks address multiple goals. They incorporate content goals; goals for the development of cognitive and metacognitive processes (e.g., students are asked to select and evaluate strategies). Complex tasks scaffold student learning (e.g., they teach skills and concepts in a manner that builds upon students current skills and processes). These tasks are meaningful to students and integrate content and skills from across the curriculum. Complex tasks also allow for multiple representations of learning. Students may represent learning in an oral presentation, through a written report, a multi-dimensional model or other visual display)
Accommodation for individual differences Tasks, activities, models of assessment are open and flexible. They accommodate differences in abilities and allow for the participation of all students. To this end, adaptions in criteria for assessment are made, or can be made, to accommodate individual differences. Additionally, tasks are universally designed to enable meaningful participation of all students. Tasks that address multiple learning goals and fit learners’ needs support all areas of SRL
  1. Adapted from Perry, 1998, 2013