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Table 2 The on-screen human-like dialogues versus the formal descriptions of the learning-relevant objects

From: Anthropomorphizing malware, bots, and servers with human-like images and dialogues: the emotional design effects in a multimedia learning environment


Human-like dialogue (Anthropomorphized)

Formal description (Non-anthropomorphized)

Trojan horse virus

I will trick the user! Click me!

Click me! Fake email to trick the user


Oh! I have received an email! I will open it!

The computer receive and open the email


Sir! Yes Sir! We are ready to receive orders!

Ready to receive orders


Keep attacking the server!

Send command to attack the server


Oh! I received requests. I should send back acknowledgements!

Server receive requests and send back acknowledgements


Help! I am being kidnapped!

Data being stolen