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Table 4 Means and standard deviations of the measures

From: Anthropomorphizing malware, bots, and servers with human-like images and dialogues: the emotional design effects in a multimedia learning environment

  Anthropomorphism
(n = 33)
M (SD)
Non-anthropomorphism
(n = 37)
M (SD)
Total
(n = 70)
M (SD)
Prior knowledge 3.02 (0.85) 2.87 (0.94) 2.94 (0.89)
Baseline PAS 33.03 (5.26) 33.70 (6.33) 33.39 (5.82)
Time on video 291.33 (106.84) 248.95 (98.41) 268.93 (103.93)
PAS after learning 37.21 (7.42) 35.30 (6.13) 36.20 (6.79)
Intrinsic motivation 42.00 (6.50) 41.05 (6.44) 41.50 (6.44)
Intrinsic load 3.24 (1.93) 5.09 (2.19) 4.22 (2.26)
Extraneous load 2.46 (1.53) 3.05 (2.06) 2.78 (1.84)
Germane load 7.39 (1.39) 7.05 (1.50) 7.21 (1.45)
Retention 3.81 (2.90) 3.23 (2.05) 3.50 (2.48)
Transfer 5.04 (2.69) 5.17 (3.25) 5.11 (2.98)