Skip to main content

Table 1 Values espoused in open pedagogy (the “Why”)

From: The why of open pedagogy: a value-first conceptualization for enhancing instructor praxis

Why Description Conceptual terms Representative citations
Sharing Freely sharing of content and knowledge. Individuals allow others to use what they create to further their own personal and professional development. This may be done through collaborative efforts, publishing open articles, or licensing creative works in a way that permits the 5Rs of Open Educational Resources Sharing; Global open source curriculum; Social openness; Information collaboration and exchange; Open licensing Bali et al. (2020), Bliss and Smith (2017), Ehlers and Conole (2010), Hegarty (2015), Hodgkinson-Williams and Gray (2009), Inamorato dos Santos et al. (2016), Koseoglu and Bozkurt (2018), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Ossiannilsson (2018), Paskevicius (2017), Seraphin et al. (2019), Wiley and Hilton (2018)
Transparency Transparency is evident in the purpose of educational activities, expectations, and practices for assessment. Transparency is also provided into the values inherent in education such as how knowledge has been constructed and how one’s own biases, beliefs, and values impact the teaching/learning dynamic Transparency; Exposed; Clear Couros (2010), Couros and Hildebrandt (2016), Hegarty (2015), Inamorato dos Santos et al. (2016), Koseoglu and Bozkurt (2018), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Open Design (n.d.), Paskevicius (2017), Stagg and Bossu (2016)
Collaborative knowledge construction Knowledge is not viewed as complete, unchanging, or being determined by those traditionally in positions of authority (e.g. scholars, professors, teachers). Educators and learners acknowledge the value of and participate in efforts to construct knowledge together Learner dialogue; Social participatory web; Networked learning; Socialization and interactivity; Contribute knowledge to public realm; Engaging with a community;Participatory culture; Collaboration between developers and peers; Collaborative knowledge building/creation; Collaboration and consultation; Add value to the world; Information collaboration and exchange; Cooperative learning; Learners contribute; Co-create knowledge; Learner dialogue; Social participatory web; Networked learning; socialization and interactivity Baran and Alzoubi (2020), Chiappe et al., (2016), Couros (2010), Couros and Hildebrandt (2016), DeRosa and Robison (2017), Ehlers (2011), Ehlers and Conole (2010), Hegarty (2015), Huang et al. (2020), Inamorato dos Santos et al. (2016), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Open Design (n.d.), Paskevicius (2017), Seraphin et al. (2019)
Deconstructing traditional power structures Concerted efforts are made to evaluate and evolve power structures in the educational environment, such as the traditional teacher-student relationship. Voice is given to those in underrepresented groups and those with authority move instruction away from a deficit model of learning See additional perspectives; Mentorship; Mentorship & facilitating; Learner-driven; Participatory culture; Not knowledge transfer and retrieval; Bridge formal/informal learning; Learners become teachers; Focus on diversity and inclusion; Self-regulated learning; Non-traditional hierarchy; Non-traditional learning; Learner-centric environment; Focused on social justice; Inclusion of multiple perspectives; Deconstruct teacher-student binary; Change inequitable power structures; Change teacher dominance and learner passivity; Greater student autonomy; Equalize access; Freedom in use; Cooperative learning; Centering experience on marginalized groups; Destabilizing normative pedagogies; Co-travelers in education; Instructors as learning mediators; Students as independent agents; Learner choice; Interactive learning; Reduce authoritative learning resource use; Student autonomy; Student responsibility for learning; Increase accessibility; Student-centered Bali et al. (2020), Baran and Alzoubi (2020), Baran et al. (2021), Bliss and Smith (2017), Chiappe et al. (2016), Cronin and MacLaren (2018), DeRosa and Robison (2017), Ehlers (2011), Ehlers and Conole (2010), Freire (2000), Hegarty (2015), Huang et al. (2020), Koseoglu and Bozkurt (2018), Lambert (2018), Liu (n.d.), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Paskevicius (2017), Seraphin et al. (2019), Tietjen and Asino (2021)
Personalized learning Authority is given to learners to determine what is learned, how it is learned, how mastery is demonstrated, and when learning takes place. This personalization takes place in traditional classroom settings as well as non-traditional learning environments Personalize experiences; Include non-traditional learners; Learner-centric environment; Make culturally relevant; Make relevant; Customized assessment strategies; Address special need of teachers and learners; Student-centered Authentic learning; Real-world learning An Introduction to Open and Distance Learning (2000), Bali et al. (2020), Bliss and Smith (2017), Chiappe et al. (2016), Hegarty (2015), Ossiannilsson (2018), Paskevicius (2017), Tietjen and Asino (2021)
Learner empowerment Students are empowered in all aspects of their learning. For example, students participate in knowledge creation, how learning occurs, and the assessment of themselves and others Student autonomy; Self-efficiency, confidence, and independence; Empowering students/learners; Participatory culture; Learners become teachers; Focus on diversity and inclusion; Self-regulated learning; Include non-traditional learners; Learner-centric environment; Focus on social justice; Inclusion of multiple perspectives; Student ownership; Change inequitable power structures; Change teacher dominance and learner passivity; Student engagement; Build intrinsic motivation; Build self-direction; Build self-efficacy; Students as independent agents; Freedom to make mistakes; Student self-direction; Interactive learning; Reduce authoritative learning resource use; Student responsibility for learning; Student-centered An Introduction to Open and Distance Learning (2000), Bali et al. (2020), Baran et al. (2021) Chiappe et al. (2016), Couros (2010), Cronin and MacLaren (2018) DeRosa and Robison (2017), Ehlers (2011), Ehlers and Conole (2010), Hegarty (2015), Huang et al. (2020), Koseoglu and Bozkurt (2018), Lambert (2018), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Paskevicius (2017), Seraphin et al. (2019), Tietjen and Asino (2021), Werth & Williams (2021a, b)