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Table 1 Related works comparison

From: The effects of personalized gamification on students’ flow experience, motivation, and enjoyment

Study PM EA SS CE CS R
Monterrat et al. (2014b) Not Not
Monterrat et al. (2014a) BrainHex Not Not
Lavoué et al. (2018) BrainHex Motivation 266 Yes Yes Personalization positively affects students’ motivation
Sajjadi et al. (2014) Engagement and flow experience Not Not
Gil et al. (2015) Not Not
Marinho et al. (2019) Bartle’s Flow 18 Yes Not No significant difference
Stuart et al. (2020) Hexad Motivation and engagement 258 Yes Yes Personalization positively affects students’ experience
Oliveira et al. (2020) BrainHex Flow 121 Yes Yes No significant difference
Our study BrainHex Enjoyment, gamification perception, motivation, and flow experience 121 Yes Yes Varied
  1. PM, player model; EA, Experience analysis; SS, Sample size; CE, Controlled experiment; CS, comparative study; R, Result