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Table 3 Internal reliability for the DFS-2

From: The effects of personalized gamification on students’ flow experience, motivation, and enjoyment

  CSB MMA G F C CTRL LSC T A
Non-personalized version
\(\alpha\) .693 .778 .769 .650 .654 .731 .706 .629 .776
Personalized version
\(\alpha\) .690 .629 .733 .684 .654 .673 .692 .722 .766
Personalized and non-personalzied version (together)
\(\alpha\) .691 .712 .753 .668 .653 .700 .699 .677 .770
  1. CSB, challenge-skill balance; MMA, action-awareness merging; G, clear goals; F, unambiguous feedback; C, total concentration on the task at hand; CTRL, sense of control; LSC, loss of self-consciousness; T, transformation of time; and A, autotelic experience