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Table 1 The outcomes of the affinity diagram within focus groups process

From: Introduction to smart learning analytics: foundations and developments in video-based learning

Learning Analytics Affordances Content Practices & pedagogies Assessment functionalities Main design challenges Expected results/outcome
-sequence analytics
-related with student’s baseline
-analytics related with the produced artifacts (artifacts analysis)
-combined analytics coming from different streams (e.g. both the video and platform)
-progress related analytics
-analytics assisting in adaptation (adaptive LA)
-ready to be visualized analytics
-support input from both the students and the teachers (e.g., annotations)
-integration of the digital textbooks affordances (e.g., search)
-related with the control of the learning process
-intuitive typical video controls (e.g., rewind)
-dynamic visualizations
-relaxation of constraints in time and space
-adaptive content and navigation
-“how to” video resources are most appropriate
-the content of the video is very much related with the type of the video (e.g., documentaries, lecture style, khan style)
-worked problems/ examples
-hard to describe/ easy to visualize content
-abstract knowledge
-abstract and procedural knowledge
-Science concepts (e.g., chemistry, mechanical engineering, programming)
-active and self-regulated learning practices
-storytelling practices
-use different modalities
-avoid splitting attention
-generalization effect (e.g., knowing when to use assessment)
-apply gamification principles and reward students to keep them motivated
-robust and well-designed peer-review functionalities
-review and critique (based on taught process)
-multiple choice or other immediate feedback assessment for the basic knowledge/ concepts
-integrate additivity in assessments (if possible)
-visualizations to make assessment intuitive and inform students’ for their progress with a simple glance
-seamless integration of different elements (e.g., videos, assessment)
-support deep and deep learning functionalities within the videos
-interoperable design (information exchange between different elements)
-integrate open ended questions
-intuitively guide students to explore the learning materials
-accommodate adaptive design (progressive enhancement) and adaptation affordances
-seamless integration of different elements (e.g., videos, assessment)
-support deep and deep learning functionalities within the videos
-interoperable design (information exchange between different elements)
-integrate open ended questions
-intuitively guide students to explore the learning materials
-accommodate adaptive design (progressive enhancement) and adaptation affordances