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Table 2 Datasets for learners’ engagement detection

From: Engagement detection in online learning: a review

Datasets Videos Number of subjects Emotions Modality
DAiSEE (Gupta et al. 2018) 9068 112 (80 male and 32 female) engaged, frustration, boredom, confusion facial expressions
HBCU (Whitehill et al. 2014) 120 34 (9 male and 25 female) not engaged, nominally engaged, engaged, very engaged facial expressions
in-the-wild (Kaur et al. 2018) 195 78 (25 female and 53 male) disengaged, barely engaged, normally engaged, highly engaged facial expressions
SDMATH (Sathayanarayana et al. 2014) 20 20 (10 male and 10 female) deictic gestures speech, gestures, eye gaze, facial expressions