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Table 2 Pearson’s correlation coefficient: Engagement Rate (Online learning)

From: Smart multimedia learning of ICT: role and impact on language learners’ writing fluency— YouTube online English learning resources as an example

Engagement Rate Mono-medium (text / speech) Multimedia (text & speech)
Reading (books) Listening (songs) YouTube BBC 6-Minute English Video games Songs Films Audio books
Writing rate −0.039 −0.068 0.606 −0.436 0.333 0.327 0.061
No. of error-free T. units per text −0.341 0.226 0.867 −0.334 0.062 0.606 0.575
Lexical diversity (VOCD) −0.783 0.204 0.844 −0.150 0.310 0.136 0.453
Lexical density −0.250 −0.287 0.448 0.763 −0.371 −0.498 0.184
Mean length of T.unit −0.182 0.039 0.409 −0.317 0.103 0.139 −0.072
Number of clauses per T-unit −0.524 0.047 0.598 −0.244 0.125 0.161 0.233
Organization of ideas −0.485 0.017 0.732 −0.053 0.000 0.458 0.472