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Table 4 Dimensions of the proposed SLE model

From: Smart learning environments: a basic research towards the definition of a practical model

Dimension Definition Main source reference
Educational curriculum Starting point for each formal learning proposal is the coalescence of the elements of the instructional design in the legislation and official educational policies (competences, contents, standards …) Liu et al. (2017)
Enriched methodologies and strategies They are the fundamental pillars of technology-based instructional designs and allows to connect the learning experience in physical environments with the experience in virtual ones through an adequate selection of educational methodologies and strategies enriched with technology. Zhu, Yu, and Riezebos (2016)
Liu et al. (2017)
Freigang et al., 2018
Maulidiya et al. (2019)
Yusufu and Nathan (2020)
Enriched assessment It entails the selection of the type of assessment (formative and/or summative) and the strategies (hetero-evaluation, peer evaluation, self-evaluation) which will be applied, as well as the techniques (teacher’s diary, questionnaires, rubrics, portfolios, etc.) always analyzing indicators from both learning environments mediated by technologies (face-to-face and virtual).
Likewise, this dimension also considers the continuing monitoring of students, mainly by means of learning analytics.
Hwang (2014)
Maulidiya et al. (2019)
Educational roles There are certain main educational roles performed by students and teachers, who carry out different duties, responsibilities, tasks, levels of authority, etc., depending on decisions that have been made in previous dimensions.
Besides, other educational roles are accordingly performed by other education agents, as for instance mediation with families in Primary or Secondary education, the support of the ICT coordinator of the educational institution or social agents who can contribute to the development of the experience.
Hwang (2014)
Zhu, Sun, and Riezebos (2016)
Zhu, Yu, and Riezebos (2016)
Yusufu and Nathan (2020)
Smart technology The final decision when designing a SLE is the dimension related to technology. Mainly smart hardware and software technologies (electronic devices connected to Internet and digital applications capable of automatizing functions) need to be integrated in these environments, but also other technologies needed for the optimal development of the educational proposal. Physical connectivity of the classroom’s technical features (Internet of Thing [IoT]) and automation need to be promoted. Hwang (2014)
Zhu, Sun, and Riezebos (2016)
Laxmikant (2017)
Liu et al. (2017)
Shvetsova (2017)
Yusufu and Nathan (2020)