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Table 4 Examples of approaches to open pedagogy

From: The why of open pedagogy: a value-first conceptualization for enhancing instructor praxis

Term Sample characteristics/techniques Citation
Open Content Open Content that could be used by faculty include:
Learning modules
Courseware items
Teacher resources (e.g.: curricula, videos, images, syllabi, lesson plans)
Open source learning management systems
Materials found in Merlot (
MIT Open Courseware (
Textbooks: OpenStax, Bookboon, Saylor
Bliss and Smith (2017), Green et al. (2018), Hodgkinson-Williams and Gray (2009)
Open Design Use of:
Freely available software and materials
Educational technology to increase access
Engaging others in development/re-development of learning outcomes, teaching and learning resources, teaching and learning activities, and student assessment/evaluation
Iterative approach to course design
Practices including the sharing, reuse, and remix of materials
Methods to be more communicative with students and peers in the course elements and design process (e.g. communities of practice)
Bozkurt et al. (2019), Couros and Hildebrandt (2016), Paskevicius (2017), Nascimbeni et al. (2018), Open Design and Development (n.d.)
Open Assessment Focus on use of formative assessments
Collaborate and consult with students and peers in achieving learning goals
Develop assessment tools in a participatory manor with learners
Encourage students to share work products beyond the educator-learner dyad
Utilize both peer and self-evaluation
Favor authentic assessment tools
Clearly communicate expectations and evaluation criteria
Chiappe (2012) in Chiappe et al. (2016), Jacobs (2019), Nascimbeni and Burgos (2016), Paskevicius (2017)
OER-enabled Pedagogy Students may:
Write articles for Wikipedia
Create an openly licensed textbook
Edit Wikipedia articles
Take photos and license them openly
Author test questions for wider use
Develop tutorial resources
Create summaries of key concepts
Develop social media postings with content to which others may refer
Couros and Hildebrandt (2016), DeRosa (2016), Jhangiani (2017), Wiley et al. (2017), Wiley and Hilton (2018)