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Table 4 Students experience analysis (uni-factorial ANOVA)

From: The effects of personalized gamification on students’ flow experience, motivation, and enjoyment

  Mean SD Mean Square f-value p value
CSB 3.618 0.876 0.668 0.864 0.591
MMA 3.331 0.944 0.959 1.081 0.377
G 3.760 0.884 0.501 0.629 0.829
F 3.662 0.861 0.732 0.987 0.465
C 3.681 0.848 0.843 1.184 0.292
CTRL 3.625 0.903 1.120 1.402 0.159
LSC 3.505 0.939 1.178 1.362 0.179
T 3.443 0.894 0.680 0.845 0.613
A 3.619 0.995 0.774 0.773 0.688
Flow 3.583 0.679 0.397 0.856 0.600
Enjoyment 5.09 1.773 2.690 0.849 0.608
Perception 4.81 1.733 3.338 1.119 0.344
Motivation 4.77 1.718 1.470 0.485 0.932
  1. CSB, challenge-skill balance; MMA, action-awareness merging; G, clear goals; F, unambiguous feedback; C, total concentration on the task at hand; CTRL, sense of control; LSC, loss of self-consciousness; T, transformation of time; and A, autotelic experience