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Table 1 The instructional approaches of the proposed framework stages

From: Gamifying informal learning activities using interactive displays: an empirical investigation of students’ learning and engagement

Framework stage Instructional approach Framework implementation approaches
1. Exploration stage Behaviorism Navigate through / explore the artifacts
Gather more information (Internet / Local database)
2. Application stage Cognitivism Short quiz game while interacting with the artifact
Play / Interact with co-player
Understand the properties of the artifact
3. Creation stage Constructionism Replicate / Create an abstract version of the artifact